The New York Times recently put together an impressive interactive map that lets you explore the data from a national census taken from 2005-2009. No doubt they will do something similar with the data from the 2010 census which has just been released.
For the census of 1910, nobody had Flash installed in their web browsers, so the Times published this analysis in print instead.
GROWTH OF A NATION AND GROWTH OF NEW YORK CITY: Dr. Walter Laidlaw Makes Interesting Comparisons of the Recent Census Reports and Those of Previous Years. (PDF)
From December 25, 1910