Archive for the ‘War’ Category

The Allies of the Future

From July 30, 1916

The Allies of the Future

Harvard professor Hugo Muensterberg wrote this essay about how the world order might look post-World War I. Some of his predictions or warnings seem relevant today, such as his hope that economic concerns would trump war-mongering. That is the overarching theory behind the Obama Administration’s significant easing of economic sanctions as part of the Iranian nuclear deal, and also the famous theory that two countries both with McDonald’s (almost) never go to war. Muensterberg in 1916 wrote:

Peace must be secured from within; not fortresses and guns but good-will must prevent strife in the future. Have not the nations learned through these two years that their material exchange binds them more firmly together than they ever fancied? Was not the sheet of paper on which these words are printed bought at an unheard-of price because they are fighting on the other half of the globe? In the world of the market every declaration of independence is in vain. As long as the guns are roaring, economic generals may work out their campaign plans for the destruction of the enemy’s commerce in future years; war is war. But peace is peace, and, above all, business is business.

Leave a comment

Written by Jesse

July 30th, 2016 at 5:40 pm

Posted in Politics,War

Carrier Pigeons an Aid to Preparedness

From July 16, 1916

Carrier Pigeons

Carrier Pigeons an Aid to Preparedness: Europe’s War Has Shown That Homing Birds Often Beat Aeroplanes and the Wireless in Carrying Military Dispatches (PDF)

As the sub-headline suggests, 1916 was an era where a bird could be counted on as more reliable and speedier than “aeroplanes” or “the wireless.” Today, of course, with supersonic jets and instant communication worldwide via the Internet and other digital devices, that is no longer true. The U.S. military stopped using messenger pigeons in 1957. Yet the NYT article estimates that 18,000 such pigeons were being used in France alone during 1916.

The author even suggests that readers mobilize to help out in the war effort, not by rationing food or donating war bonds as were the most typical methods, but by training carrier pigeons yourself:

And you, the reader, may take part in such a nation-wide scheme of preparedness by raising and training your own homing pigeons and holding them ready for the service of the military authorities in time of war or your community in time of peace. On every motor trip you can take a few pigeons and fly them back home from various distances, or any friend in a distant town will delight in flying them to you and telegraphing the moment of release. Express companies on all railroads carry crates at low cost, and I have uniformly found their agents courteous and willing to release the birds on arrival and to ship back the empty crates.

I wouldn’t count on agent being as “courteous and willing to release the birds on arrival” in this day and age.

Leave a comment

Written by Jesse

July 16th, 2016 at 5:05 pm

Posted in Nature,War

Sir Edward Grey

From July 9, 1916

Sir Edward Grey

Sir Edward Grey — George Bernard Shaw profile about the foreign secretary of Britain [PDF]

The meeting of two great minds. George Bernard Shaw was one of the most acclaimed writers of his day as a journalist and playwright, and nine years after this article in 1925 he would win the Nobel Prize for Literature. Sir Edward Grey was the 11-year Foreign Secretary for Great Britain (their equivalent of the U.S. Secretary of State), and later the Ambassador to the United States and Chancellor at University of Oxford.

Shaw didn’t like Grey, to put it mildly. He writes:

As long ago as 1906, in referring to a very horrible episode in the history of our occupation of Egypt, I expressed my opinion that Sir Edward Grey was unfitted by his character and the limitations of his capacity for the highly specialized work of a Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. Nothing that has happened since has shaken that opinion.

That December, about five months after the article’s publication, a new Prime Minister took over and Grey’s 11-year reign in the position ended. Presumably Shaw was happy.

Leave a comment

Written by Jesse

July 7th, 2016 at 5:38 pm

Posted in Politics,War

Red Cross Organizes Medical Preparedness

From July 2, 2016

Red Cross

Red Cross Organizes Medical Preparedness: Colonel Jefferson R. Kean Tells Why It Is Necessary to Train Physicians for Complicated Duty of Caring for the Wounded (PDF)

The Director General of Military Relief for the American Red Cross discusses the necessity of military medical care. The Red Cross did life-saving work then and continues to do so now, a particularly vital service in such times as the aftermath of the Orlando massacre the other week. I’ve donated blood twice before and I’m scheduled to do so again a third time soon. You should too.

Leave a comment

Written by Jesse

July 1st, 2016 at 8:41 pm

Posted in Science,War

Japan’s Powerful Place Among the Allies

From July 2, 1916

Japan's Powerful

Japan’s Powerful Place Among the Allies: Takuma Kuroda, Who Represented His Government at the Panama Exposition, Scoffs at Japanese Invasion of America (PDF)

A notable Japanese diplomat and professor named Takuma Kuroda gave an interview which included this ironic quote in light of Japan’s and Germany’s alliance during World War II about 25 years later:

“Japan owed her success in the Russian war to the German military system, not to the entity, but to the ideas of military art which she had learned in Germany. Don’t you know that we were fighting purely by book, solely in accordance with lessons learned chiefly from the Germans? It is frequently said in Japan that in the present war we would have made more profit had we been on the side of the Germans. Of course that could not be thought of.”

Leave a comment

Written by Jesse

June 29th, 2016 at 8:41 pm

Posted in Politics,War

Co-operative Union of Europe After War

From July 2, 1916

Co-Operative Union

Co-operative Union of Europe After War: Dr. Alfred H. Fried, Winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1911, Has Interesting Plan for Securing Lasting Peace (PDF)

In light of the United Kingdom voting Friday to exit the European Union, the so-called “Brexit” which sent world markets into tumult, this piece from 100 years ago this week is particularly striking.

Alfred Fried was an Austrian thinker and writer who advocated more globalism over nationalism, helping create the idea which eventually became the League of Nations in 1919 and serving as one of the primary advocates for Esperanto, the attempt at creating a worldwide universal language (a largely-failed idea that nonetheless still retains millions of advocates to this day). In this article Fried suggests something of a European-wide supra-national government akin to what the EU eventually became several decades later. Some of his arguments remain similar to what the “Remain” camp advocated in the Brexit debate:

“Seven reforms… must come before the mistaken ideas which have caused the present upheaval can be uprooted, [including] the transformation of European diplomacy [and] the elimination of the antiquated conception of sovereignty… Modern diplomats use sovereignty as a bulwark behind which they hide when there is no rational justification for their actions.”

In the midst of World War I when he proposed the concept, Fried’s “Co-Operative Union of Europe” was primarily meant to serve the purpose of preventing war. An intra-Europe war seems impossible to imagine today, even with increased tensions from UK’s departure (and the possible imminent departures of several other nations). Still, many of Fried’s arguments still hold resonance today.

Leave a comment

Written by Jesse

June 28th, 2016 at 8:40 pm

Posted in Politics,War

Preparedness Prevented Mexican War in 1866

From June 25, 1916

Preparedness - cropped

Preparedness Prevented Mexican War in 1866: Knowing That United States Could Call Civil War Veterans, France Withdrew Army and Left Maximilian to His Fate (PDF)

A war was avoided in 1866 because it was known that the U.S. had millions of soldiers it could call upon in a moment. The U.S. Senate this week approved 85 to 13 a provision that would require women to register for the military draft, which for the country’s entire history only men have been required to do. If it passes the House later this year and gets signed by either a supportive President Obama or a supportive Hillary Clinton, could that potentially serve a similar war-preventing deterrent effect in the 21st century as it did in 1866?

 

Leave a comment

Written by Jesse

June 24th, 2016 at 9:11 am

Posted in Politics,War