Archive for the ‘Development’ Category

Activity Of Modern Woman A Racial Problem

From August 13, 1911

ACTIVITY OF MODERN WOMAN A RACIAL PROBLEM

ACTIVITY OF MODERN WOMAN A RACIAL PROBLEM: Dr. Max G. Schlapp, Specialist in Mental Diseases, Believes that Present Conditions Tend Toward Increase in Insanity, Divorce, Race Suicide. (PDF)

Taking the evidence as it comes to him from records of daily experience which are written into the public documents of all countries, [Dr Schlapp] finds unmistakable evidence of deterioration in the human race. This does not mean that men and women to-day are not physically and mentally as well endowed as ever they were, but that there are more abnormal men, women, and children now than at any time since the establishment of the present civilization.

There are more insane, more criminals, more divorced people, and fewer children born to each one thousand of population, and this he traces directly to modern conditions. All civilizations that have gone before have had precisely the same experience that the world is passing through now, and for precisely that reason Dr. Schlapp believes that this civilization will go the way they have gone until the point of exhaustion is reached. Then there will be a resting period, and the human family will begin to advance once more.

The energetic, enterprising woman, he says, is not at all new. The suffragist or suffragette is as old as organized government. When the Grecian Empire was at its highest stages of development its advanced women were clamoring for the right of suffrage, and so it was in Rome before its fall, and Dr. Schlapp, who calls attention to this by way of illustration, has no doubt that the same condition existed in Egypt in some form or other about the time Egypt passed into the darkness.

If I understand the argument correctly, Dr. Schlapp is saying that when a civilization reaches a point where women begin to seek more duties outside the home, it suffers in other ways: fewer children, more divorces, and more insane people. If Dr. Schlapp can show a causal relationship, then it raises more questions: is it better to have a civilization where women are relegated to the home and have no authority but there are more traditional households, or one where women have more freedom, rights, and responsibilities, but there’s a higher number of divorces and fewer kids?

2 comments

Written by David

August 9th, 2011 at 10:00 am

Double-Decked Streets For Lower New York

From August 6, 1911

DOUBLE-DECKED STREETS FOR LOWER NEW YORK

DOUBLE-DECKED STREETS FOR LOWER NEW YORK: Department of Public Works Has Made Plans for Elevated Sidewalks and for Tunnels to Relieve Congestion. (PDF)

I can think of a few double-decked roads in the city (such as under elevated portions of the FDR drive, and beneath elevated subway tracks in the outer boroughs) but nothing like what’s depicted in this drawing. It’s an interesting concept. Are there any major cities with double-decked sidewalks along the roads?

One comment

Written by David

August 3rd, 2011 at 9:30 am

Posted in Development

A Talk With Miss Margaret Kelly, Director Of The U. S. Mint

From August 6, 1911

A TALK WITH MISS MARGARET KELLY, DIRECTOR OF THE U. S. MINT

A TALK WITH MISS MARGARET KELLY, DIRECTOR OF THE U. S. MINT: Work Done by the Highest Salaried Female Official in the United States. (PDF)

This Margaret Kelly person sounds pretty impressive. Check this out:

Miss Margaret Kelly, the young woman in question, occupies the enviable position of being the highest salaried female official in the employ of the United States Government. But this fact does not so much entitle her to distinction as this: that, in her present position, she holds a place of responsibility that is second only to those of the Cabinet officers, a place that is so far above any other official position held by a woman that it may be said it is first — and there is no second.

When she got the position, one House member noted that “Miss Kelly’s appointment marks an epoch in the history of the advancement and development of woman in the business world.”

Here’s some of what she had to say about gender and business:

“There is one thing I most cordially detest… That is the distinction one constantly hears made between the work of the sexes. The expression ‘a man’s work’ or ‘a woman’s work’ is particularly obnoxious to me, as are their complements, ‘a man’s wages’ and ‘a woman’s wages.’ Now I cannot see any necessary distinction between work as a man does it and as it is done by a woman. The only distinctions or classes I recognize in work are ‘good work’ and ‘bad work.'”

She sounds like a great role model for women trying to break the glass ceiling. And yet, I can find almost no other mention of her online. No Wikipedia entry. Nothing. History is very strange sometimes.

Leave a comment

Written by David

August 2nd, 2011 at 9:30 am

Posted in Development,Politics

Are American Cities Going Mad Architecturally?

From August 6, 1911

ARE AMERICAN CITIES GOING MAD ARCHITECTURALLY?

ARE AMERICAN CITIES GOING MAD ARCHITECTURALLY? Ernest Flagg, Designer of the Singer Building and Other Skyscrapers, Says Our Taste is Barbaric and Archaic — Loftier Towers Predicted for the Future. (PDF)

When Ernest Flagg’s Singer Buildinger was completed in 1908, it was the tallest building in the world at 612 feet. That record lasted for one year. Here are some of his thoughts on skyscrapers from the article:

The trouble is that we have not yet applied to high buildings the same truthful, simple, and artistic treatment which ages of experience have taught us to use in monumental buildings of moderate height. But te time will come when all this will be changed, and when it does come, I predict that public buildings in the United States will be carried to such amazing heights that the tallest commercial building will be dwarfed by them.

I can’t think what the tallest government building is in the United States, but the tallest one that comes to mind is the United Nations building, which isn’t really a U.S. building since it’s technically on international territory. But at 509 feet, it’s not even that tall. Can anyone think of a taller government building?

I have no doubt that heights approximating 2,000 feet will be reached within the next twenty-five years, for I see no reason why such heights should not be practical. The enormous weights involved will be carried by columns of cast steel of almost sold sections bolted together, and not built up of the rolled structural shape which we now use.

Well, that was sort of accurate. Thanks to steel, skyscrapers got taller than ever. The Empire State Building was completed 20 years after this prediction, but at 1,454 feet it doesn’t quite approximate 2,000 feet tall. And it was actually even shorter when it opened because the antenna spire wasn’t added until 1952.

The first skyscraper to come close to 2,000 feet wasn’t actually built until very recently. It’s the Burj Khalifa which more than passed the mark, topping out at 2,717 feet. Before that, the tallest building was the Taipei 101, which only reached 1,670 feet.

2 comments

Written by David

August 1st, 2011 at 9:30 am

Posted in Development

A Stove To Cool The House Instead Of Heating It

From July 30, 1911

A STOVE TO COOL THE HOUSE INSTEAD OF HEATING IT

A STOVE TO COOL THE HOUSE INSTEAD OF HEATING IT: Alexander Graham Bell Invents an “Ice Stove” Which Makes His Rooms Cold in Summer, Just as a Coal Stove Would Make Them Hot in Winter. (PDF)

Not content to just invent the telephone, Alexander Graham Bell went on to invent other useful things, like a primitive air conditioner that blows air over blocks of ice to cool down the room. “The invention is what, for want of a better name, has been termed an ‘ice stove.'”

That’s the gist of the article, which is a pretty good read.

Leave a comment

Written by David

July 26th, 2011 at 9:30 am

Keeping Track Of The Criminal By His Finger Prints

From July 30, 1911

KEEPING TRACK OF THE CRIMINAL BY HIS FINGER PRINTS

KEEPING TRACK OF THE CRIMINAL BY HIS FINGER PRINTS: The Wonderful Art, Long Used in China, Rapidly Being Adopted by the Police of This Country, with the New York Force Leading. (PDF)

I love articles like this one.

Over in Jersey City awaiting his trial is the man who marked each successful burglary by a note defying the police and jeering at their methods. He has not been proved guilty, but the police are certain he is their man. He was caught by the finger prints which never lie.

He was much too clever a burglar to do his work with bare hands. He always wore white lisle gloves, like a village undertaker. But one night in taking out a pane of glass he cut his finger, and had to take off his glove. And there on the glass was left the tell-tale finger print. The detective who was sent out from the New York office saw it with his naked eye.

He dusted a bit of chemist’s gray powder from a tube in his pocket over the glass and photographed the prints to which the powder stuck, bringing out every ridge and whorl. Back in the New York Bureau of Identification the photograph was carefully measured and classified according to these whorls and arches. And in the files, among the 60,000 finger prints was found its duplicate. The man’s photograph was in the Bertillon department next door, and he was quietly arrested.

The criminal who leaves his finger marks behind him is doomed, provided anywhere in the world he has been “finger-printed,” or if he is ever caught in another offense, no matter how trivial. In ten minutes the expert of any police department receiving his finger prints and a request for information can look him up and forward description, photograph and record. There is no possibility of mistake, for nowhere in the 60,000 records in the New York Department is there a single duplicate. The thousands in the other American cities which have adopted the system show none. Not one has been found in the fifteen years that the English detective department at Scotland Yard has used this means of tracking criminals. And for 2,000 years Chinas has been affixing a thumb print to a passport as a means of identification. No two have ever been found alike.

Leave a comment

Written by David

July 25th, 2011 at 10:00 am

How New York Looks From A Downtown Roof

From July 23, 1911

HOW NEW YORK LOOKS FROM A DOWNTOWN ROOF

HOW NEW YORK LOOKS FROM A DOWNTOWN ROOF (PDF)

While it was still novel to look around from atop a tall building, here’s a description of what that was like back in 1911.

Leave a comment

Written by David

July 18th, 2011 at 9:30 am

Posted in Development,Life

New York 100 Years Ago, When The City Hall Was Built

From July 9, 1911

NEW YORK 100 YEARS AGO, WHEN THE CITY HALL WAS BUILT

NEW YORK 100 YEARS AGO, WHEN THE CITY HALL WAS BUILT: They Had a Safe and Sane Fourth and a Hot Wave — Also They Had the New Theatre, and After All Life Wasn’t So Very Different in the Little Town of a Century Ago. (PDF)

Here’s a look back 100 years at a look back 100 years.

Leave a comment

Written by David

July 8th, 2011 at 10:45 am

Posted in Development

How Conversation Across A Continent Came About

From July 9, 1911

HOW CONVERSATION ACROSS A CONTINENT CAME ABOUT

HOW CONVERSATION ACROSS A CONTINENT CAME ABOUT: The Men Who Made It Possible for New York to Talk to Denver — Graham Bell Has Lived to See His Invention Grow Beyond All the Bounds Believed to be Set for It When He Made It. (PDF)

The development of the long distance telephone, which began thirty years ago, is due in a most striking way to a group of brilliant scientists and inventors, each of whom contributed one or more factors essential to the success of the whole. But for the discoveries and scientific devices of these men the original invention of Prof. Alexander Graham Bell would not be the wonderfully practical means of communication that it is, and talking over continental distances would be out of the question. With but a very few exceptions, these men, who by their improvements on the Bell instrument have made the long distance telephone a reality, are alive to-day and actively engaged either in the further development of the telephone or in other scientific pursuits.

Leave a comment

Written by David

July 7th, 2011 at 10:03 am

Making Washington One Of World’s Beautiful Capitals

From July 2, 1911

MAKING WASHINGTON ONE OF WORLD'S BEAUTIFUL CAPITALS

MAKING WASHINGTON ONE OF WORLD’S BEAUTIFUL CAPITALS: L’Enfant’s Dream to Come True After a Century — With the Approval of the Plans for Three New Department Buildings, the Ten-Year-Old Plan for a Splendid Home for the Government Is Launched (PDF)

Pierre Charles L’Enfant was a French born American architect who designed the layout of Washington DC in the country’s early years. But, the article says, his “great work was hampered and thwarted for a century by the lack of appreciation for beauty in the Government.”

Ugly buildings, slums, and “even houses of ill-fame” lined the mall. In 1911, plans were approved to build some new government buildings in keeping with L’Enfant’s original vision.

Today, work is still being done to improve the mall and surrounding parks. You can see a list of ongoing projects under supervision of the National Parks Service.

Leave a comment

Written by David

June 27th, 2011 at 11:00 am

Posted in Development,Politics

New York’s Proposed New Subway System At A Glance

From June 18, 1911

NEW YORK'S PROPOSED NEW SUBWAY SYSTEM AT A GLANCE

NEW YORK’S PROPOSED NEW SUBWAY SYSTEM AT A GLANCE (PDF)

Time to update your subway maps.

Leave a comment

Written by David

June 16th, 2011 at 10:30 am

Posted in Development

What Is The Most Beautiful Spot In New York?

From June 18, 1911

WHAT IS THE MOST BEAUTIFUL SPOT IN NEW YORK?

WHAT IS THE MOST BEAUTIFUL SPOT IN NEW YORK? Well Known Artists Express Their Preferences and Show an Astonishing Lack of Unanimity, No Two Selecting the Same Place — But They Upset the Popular Opinion That Skyscrapers Are Ugly. (PDF)

What’s the most beautiful spot in New York City? Answers in this article from a variety of artists include The Ramble in Central Park, Madison Square Park, Broad Street in the financial district, and the Brooklyn Bridge.

What do you think is the city’s most beautiful spot?

One comment

Written by David

June 15th, 2011 at 10:15 am

Centenary Of City Hall To Be Observed On July 4

From June 11, 1911

CENTENARY OF CITY HALL TO BE OBSERVED ON JULY 4

CENTENARY OF CITY HALL TO BE OBSERVED ON JULY 4: Descendants of Mayor De Witt Clinton and Other Officials of That Day Asked to Join in the Celebration — The Story of the Building. (PDF)

100 years ago, the city celebrated City Hall‘s 100th anniversary. But I can’t find any announcements of bicentennial celebrations planned for this year. So I propose that we all celebrate by riding the 6 train through the abandoned City Hall subway station.

Leave a comment

Written by David

June 10th, 2011 at 10:00 am

Posted in Development,Politics

There Is Too Much Waste In Our Educational System

From June 11, 1911

THERE IS TOO MUCH WASTE IN OUR EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

THERE IS TOO MUCH WASTE IN OUR EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM: Business Principles of Factories Should Be Applied to It, Says Leonard P. Ayres, of the Sage Foundation. We Don’t Demand Definite Results and Don’t Know What We’re Aiming At. (PDF)

I don’t have time to write more comments on this article because I’m a brand new dad and need to focus on that for a bit. But please feel free to read the article and make your own comments.

Leave a comment

Written by David

June 9th, 2011 at 10:00 am

Celebrating The Naming Of America At St. Die

From June 4, 1911

CELEBRATING THE NAMING OF AMERICA AT ST. DIE

CELEBRATING THE NAMING OF AMERICA AT ST. DIE: Four Hundredth Anniversary of the Death of Mathias Ringmann, Who First Suggested the Name of This Continent in His “Introductio Cosmographiae.” (PDF)

I don’t have time to write more comments on this article because I’m a brand new dad and need to focus on that for a bit. But please feel free to read the article and make your own comments.

One comment

Written by David

May 31st, 2011 at 9:50 am

Posted in Development

Sectional View Of The New Municipal Building

From May 21, 1911

SECTIONAL VIEW OF THE NEW MUNICIPAL BUILDING

SECTIONAL VIEW OF THE NEW MUNICIPAL BUILDING: Intricacies of the Huge Structure Shown, and the Approaches to the Subways Connecting with the Bridges Plainly Indicated. (PDF)

A lovely cross-section of the Municipal Building. Almost exactly four years ago, I got married in that building.

The rest of this post is unwritten because I’m a brand new dad and need to focus on that for a bit. But please feel free to read the article and make your own comments.

One comment

Written by David

May 20th, 2011 at 11:00 am

Posted in Development

Sectional View Of New York’s New Public Library

From May 14, 1911

SECTIONAL VIEW OF NEW YORK'S PUBLIC LIBRARY

SECTIONAL VIEW OF NEW YORK’S PUBLIC LIBRARY: Some Idea of the Size and Completeness of the Structure May Be Had from the Accompanying Drawing. (PDF)

I love this illustration. I like to imagine that the cutaway walls are really like that, and you can go up to the roof of the library and slide down them.

Leave a comment

Written by David

May 9th, 2011 at 10:00 am

A Fire Detective — Latest Necessity Of City Life

From May 7, 1911

A FIRE DETECTIVE -- LATEST NECESSITY OF CITY LIFE

A FIRE DETECTIVE — LATEST NECESSITY OF CITY LIFE: His Strange Discoveries in Tracking Firebugs — His Studies in the Psychology of That Increasing Product of Present Conditions, the Pyromaniac. (PDF)

See also: Robert De Niro in Backdraft

One comment

Written by David

May 5th, 2011 at 10:00 am

Centenary Of Maker Of First Portrait Photograph

From April 30, 1911

CENTENARY OF MAKER OF FIRST PORTRAIT PHOTOGRAPH

CENTENARY OF MAKER OF FIRST PORTRAIT PHOTOGRAPH: New York University Will Honor the Memory of Prof John William Draper, Who Took the First Human Likeness When Daguerre Failed to Do It. (PDF)

I’m a photographer professionally, so articles like this are especially interesting to me. This one celebrates the 100th birthday of John William Draper, credited with taking the first portrait photo, an image of his sister Dorothy.

Back then, photos required long exposures, so the subjects needed to sit extremely still. Draper experimented with putting white powder on people’s faces to lighten them up a bit for the picture. And he also realized that if a person sits still for a 30 second exposure, they can feel free to blink during that time without worrying about ruining the image. But any other movement must be considered and eliminated:

“The hands should never rest upon the chest, for the motion of respiration disturbs them so much as to make them have a thick, clumsy appearance, destroying also the representation of the veins on the back, which, if they are held motionless, are copied with surprising beauty.”

Here’s some more of Draper’s advice for a portrait sitting:

“It has already been stated that pictorial advantages attend an arrangement in which the light is thrown upon the face at a small angle. This also allows us to get rid entirely of the shadow on the background or to compose it more gracefully in the picture. For this it is well that the chair should be brought forward from the background from three to six feet.

“Those who undertake daguerreotype portraiture will, of course, arrange the background of their pictures according to their own tastes. When one that is quite uniform is desired, a blanket or a cloth of drab color, properly suspended, will be found to answer very well.”

While Draper took the first formal portrait, Louis Daguerre actually took the first photo of a person. He captured a photo looking out over a street in Paris. It was a long exposure, so people moving through the frame were not captured. But one person stood still long enough to register in the image while he was getting his shoe shined. But the figure is tiny and silhouetted, so it could hardly be called a portrait.

Leave a comment

Written by David

April 29th, 2011 at 11:00 am

Fighting To Beautify Fifth Avenue With Trees

From April 30, 1911

FIGHTING TO BEAUTIFY FIFTH AVENUE WITH TREES

FIGHTING TO BEAUTIFY FIFTH AVENUE WITH TREES: Widening of the Avenue Above Forty-Seventh Street Gives Fresh Impetus to the Movement of the Tree Planting Association (PDF)

This article discusses a proposal to turn Fifth Avenue in to a tree-lined street with a tree-lined median, like Park Avenue has today.

Leave a comment

Written by David

April 26th, 2011 at 11:00 am

Posted in Development